The Vital Role of Agricultural Research: Agriculture Feeding Australia’s Future


Agricultural research plays a critical role in developing innovative solutions to improve productivity, competitiveness and sustainability of Australia’s food and fibre sector. This article explores the key challenges facing the industry and the vital importance of continued investment in agricultural science and research.

Australia has a long history of excellence in agricultural research dating back to the late 1800s. Landmark scientific developments such as gene shears, walker cotton harvesters and novel wheat varieties helped transform Australian agriculture into a global powerhouse. Today, amid rising demands, climate change impacts and evolving consumer preferences, the need for cutting-edge research and development is more important than ever.

What are the major challenges facing Australian agriculture today?


Agriculture remains one of Australia’s most important industries, contributing over $60 billion annually and employing over 300,000 people across the farm sector value chain. However, the industry faces escalating challenges including:

  • Meeting rising global food demand – Feeding a projected world population of 10 billion by 2050 requires a 60-70% increase in total food production. As a major food exporter, Australia has a key role to play.
  • Adapting to climate change – More frequent droughts, changing rainfall patterns and rising temperatures are impacting crop and livestock production. New solutions are needed to build resilience.
  • Protecting natural resources – Efforts to improve sustainability are vital to preserve precious soil, land and water assets over the long term.
  • Competing internationally – Australia must maintain a competitive edge against aggressive new players in global commodity markets.
  • Harnessing new technologies – Emerging innovations around automation, genetics and digital agriculture need to be capitalized on.
  • Improving farm profits – With rising costs and fluctuating prices, boosting productivity and profitability remains crucial.

Why is agricultural research so important for Australia?


Agricultural research provides evidence-based solutions to tackle the myriad challenges outlined above. Key reasons why ongoing research investment is vital include:

  • Underpinning productivity – Advances in genetics, farm management, technology and more allow farmers to grow more from less. This boosts efficiency, output quality and farm incomes over time.
  • Developing resilient varieties – Plant and animal breeding can produce new drought hardy varieties tailored to Australia’s variable climate. This builds climate adaptability.
  • Protecting natural assets – Research identifies ways to get “more from less” by sustainably managing soil, water, forests, fisheries and landscapes.
  • Tools for informed decisions – Scientists provide data, models and decision support tools to inform policy and on-farm decisions.
  • Future-proofing the sector – Research anticipates emerging challenges and opportunities, equipping industry for the future.
  • Translating ideas into impact – Science alone is not enough – agricultural researchers work closely with farmers to extend findings and achieve widespread adoption.
  • Training future innovators – Research activities train next generation scientists and foster a thriving innovation ecosystem.
  • Global competitiveness – A strong research focus keeps Australian producers internationally competitive amid volatile markets.

What institutes lead agricultural research in Australia?


Australia hosts an extensive network of public and private research institutes dedicated to agricultural science and innovation.

Key national research agencies include:

  • CSIRO – Australia’s national science agency operates extensive agriculture, food and natural resource programs. Efforts span genetics, digital agriculture, aquaculture and more.
  • Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) – ACIAR partners with developing countries across farming, forestry, fisheries and policy research.
  • AgriFutures Australia – Focused on fostering innovation and emerging industries in Australian rural industries.
  • Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) – Invests in research, development and extension for the Australian grains industry.
  • Rural Research and Development Corporations (RDCs) – A network of 15 industry-owned RDCs co-invest around $750 million in R&D annually.

Major university research centres also play a pivotal role, including groups at the University of Queensland, Charles Sturt University, University of Melbourne and University of Sydney among others.

What are some key research focus areas for the future?


Looking ahead, some of the most important domains for agricultural research in Australia include:

Precision agriculture and digital innovation

  • How can emerging data, automation, AI and sensing technologies be harnessed to improve productivity and reduce environmental impacts?

Genetics and breeding

  • What advanced genomic tools can accelerate development of improved crop and livestock varieties?

Soil, water and nutrient management

  • How can farm inputs like fertilisers and water be used more efficiently? What practices build healthy soils?

Biosecurity, health and welfare

  • Which tools and protocols can strengthen defences against pests, diseases and invasive species? How do we safeguard animal welfare?

Climate change adaptation

  • How can farming systems be reconfigured to withstand droughts, heatwaves and shifting rainfall? Which varieties and breeds will perform best?

Agribusiness profitability

  • What innovative business models, technologies and practices can boost profit margins across the supply chain?

International market analysis

  • Which changing export and consumer trends hold the greatest opportunities for Australian agriculture?

Why should the government continue investing in agricultural R&D?


Agricultural science and innovation has delivered enormous benefits for Australia over the past century. But several factors underscore why strong ongoing national investment is warranted:

  • Each dollar invested in agricultural R&D returns on average $10-15 in benefits to farmers and the wider economy.
  • Research takes sustained, patient funding – stopping and starting programs disrupts progress.
  • Private companies under-invest in “public good” research with widespread benefits.
  • Preserving Australia’s competitive edge requires consistent funding commitment.
  • Major challenges like climate change and soil degradation are rapidly evolving.
  • The training of talented scientists relies on ongoing national support.

While private investment is rising, public funding remains crucial to uphold Australia’s agricultural research excellence.

Sustained investment will ensure Australian agriculture remains productive, competitive and sustainable into the future – delivering prosperity across rural communities and helping feed regional and global populations.


Q: What is the role of agricultural research in feeding Australia’s future?

A: Agricultural research plays a vital role in ensuring food security in Australia by providing the latest scientific knowledge and technology to the agriculture industry. It helps in improving the productivity, efficiency, and sustainability of agricultural practices.

Q: How can I stay up to date with the latest agricultural research?

A: You can stay informed about the latest agricultural research by regularly visiting reputable websites and publications related to agriculture and research. Many research institutes and organizations also offer subscription options to receive updates on the latest findings and publications.

Q: What are some courses or programs available in agricultural research?

A: There are several courses and programs available in agricultural research, ranging from undergraduate degrees to postgraduate research opportunities. These courses usually cover various research areas, including soil health, crop production, animal science, and agribusiness.

Q: How can I become a research scientist in the field of agriculture?

A: To become a research scientist in agricultural research, you typically need a relevant educational background, such as a bachelor’s or master’s degree in agriculture or a related discipline. You may also need to pursue further studies or gain experience as a senior research assistant before transitioning into a senior research position.

Q: What support does the Australian government provide for agricultural research?

A: The Australian government’s commitment to agricultural research is significant. It provides funding support to research institutions, universities, and agriculture-related organizations. The government also collaborates with industry stakeholders and invests in research infrastructure to enhance the capacity for agricultural research in the country.

Q: What are some of the significant research areas in Australian agricultural research?

A: Australian agricultural research covers a broad range of areas, including sustainable farming practices, climate change adaptation, water management, biosecurity, pest and disease control, agricultural machinery innovations, and market research for agricultural products.

Q: Are there any specific agricultural research initiatives in New South Wales?

A: Yes, New South Wales has several agricultural research initiatives. The government of New South Wales, along with research institutes and universities, supports research projects and programs aimed at improving productivity, sustainability, and resilience in the agricultural sector.

Q: How do agricultural scientists contribute to the industry?

A: Agricultural scientists contribute to the industry by conducting research, experimenting with new techniques, developing innovative solutions, and providing scientific advice. Their work helps improve agricultural practices, enhance productivity, and address challenges faced by farmers and the broader agricultural industry.

Q: What is the link between agricultural research and soil health?

A: Agricultural research plays a crucial role in understanding and improving soil health. Through research, scientists can develop strategies for soil conservation, nutrient management, and soil restoration, which are essential for sustainable and productive agriculture.

Q: How does agricultural research contribute to the economic growth of Australia?

A: Agricultural research contributes to the economic growth of Australia by improving the efficiency and productivity of the agriculture industry. It helps develop innovative farming practices, high-quality agricultural products, and technologies that enhance competitiveness in domestic and international markets.

In Summary: Key Reasons Why Agricultural Research Matters

  • Boosts efficiency, productivity and farm incomes over time
  • Generates climate resilient crops and breeds for variable conditions
  • Develops solutions to use resources like soil and water sustainably
  • Provides data to inform evidence-based policy decisions
  • Anticipates and prepares for emerging challenges and opportunities
  • Translates scientific findings into real-world impact and adoption
  • Develops skilled researchers and promotes an innovative ecosystem
  • Ensures Australia remains globally competitive into the future

Agricultural science, research and innovation will be more important than ever in coming decades. Continued investment in Australia’s world-class research agencies, university programs and private R&D will pay enormous dividends – spurring productivity, growth, competitiveness, environmental stewardship and national prosperity.

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